Text A How TV Violence Affects Kids
1. Exposure to 暴露于;接触到e.g. exposure to violence 接触到暴力
2. Have effects on sb./sth. 对某人/某事有影响;affect 为动词;effect 为名词
3. Point out 指出
4. Distinguish sth./sb. from sth./sb. 区别某事或某人
5. Tend to do sth. 倾向去做某事
6. Make better sense of sth./sb. 更好的理解某人或某事
7. Apply sth. to sth. 把什么应用在什么上
8. Make sb. guilty 让某人很内疚
9. As an alternative to sth./doing sth. 作为什么的替换
1. Between 1982 and 1986， the amount of television time allocated(过去分词作后置定语) each week to(把什么分配给某人，尤指时间) violent programs increased significantly.
2. Given(考虑到) the amount of time that children watch television， it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
3. Recover 恢复(v.); recovery 恢复
4. Realistic 现实的(adj.); unrealistic 不现实的(adj.)
5. Children naturally often want the toys shown(过去分词shown做toys的宾语补足语，表是被上演) on and advertised during these programs.
6. Imitate 模仿(v.); imitative (adj.)
7. Imagine 想象(v.); imaginative (adj.)
8. Children simply imitate the behavior observed during the program， thus undermining (现在分词做结果状语， 表示破坏)both the imaginative and the expressive functions of play.
9. Appear to be +形容词;e.g. appear to be crazy 好像疯了一样
10. It would be a good idea to control his viewing.(动名词观看电视作宾语)
11. Controlling viewing(动名词作主语) is easier to do during the preschool years than during the school years， so you should initiate a pattern of restricted television watching now.
12. Help your child to interpret what she sees-to think of explanations for the events depicted(过分作后置定语，表示被描述的)and to imagine how the show is put together.
13. Violent 暴力的;nonviolent 非暴力的